SCADA(supervisory control and Data Acquisition)

SCADA(supervisory control and Data Acquisition) SCADA is an industrial control system which is used in many modern industries like energy,manufacturing power,water transportation etc.SCADA software receives the info form (PLCs) or remote terminal unit (RTUs) which in-turn receive their info from the sensors or inputted value which we have given manually. SCADA refers to supervisory control … Read more

Ocean Thermal Energy

Ocean Thermal Energy Ocean develops the two types of energy : Thermal energy from the sun’s heat and Mechanical energy from tides and waves Ocean covers more than 70% of Earth’s surface making them the worlds largest solar collector. The sun’s heat warms the surface water a lot more than the deep ocean water and … Read more

Geothermal Power Generation

Geothermal Power Generation Geothermal energy is the energy which lies embedded within the earth. Geothermal electric power plants are built on the edges of tectonic plates where high temperature geothermal resources are available near the surfaces. From the center of the earth, there are different zones such as solid metallic core A molten core A … Read more

Tidal energy power generation

Tidal energy power generation Tidal energy is the permanent source of energy. The rise and fall of tides nearly twice a day are associated with the rotation of earth every 24 hours in relation to both sun and moon. The tide amplitude may be considerable 18 to 21m have been noted near the Magellan strait … Read more

Rectifier : Half wave rectifier and Full wave Rectifier

Rectifier The electric power is usually available in a.c supply. The supply voltage varies sinusoidal and has a frequency of 50Hz and used for different purposes such as lightning, heating and electric motors. But there are many applications such as electronics circuit where d.c supply is needed. When such a d.c supply is requires, the … Read more

Transistor as an Amplifier

Transistor as an Amplifier The transistor amplifier circuit is shown in the figure ,shows the common emitter npn amplifier circuit. VBB is connected in the input circuit in addition to the signal voltage. This d.c voltage is known as bias voltage and its magnitude is such that it always keeps the emitter-base junction forward biased … Read more

Transistor connection: Common base(CB) common Emitter(CE) common collector(CE)

Transistor connections There are three leads in a transistor i.e. emitter ,base and collector terminals. When a transistor is to be connected in a circuit, we requires four terminals; two for the input and two for the output. This difficulty is overcome by making one terminal of the transistor common to both input and output … Read more


Transistors Definition: A transistor consists of two PN junctions formed by sandwiching either p-type or n-type semiconductors between a pair of opposite types. There are two types of transistors: n-p-n transistor p-n-p transistor An n-p-n transistor is composed of two n-type semiconductors separated by a thin section of p-type in fig (i).A p-n-p transistor is … Read more

Zener Diode-Explanation working Applications circuit diagram :Zener diode as Voltage Regulator

Zener Diode A properly doped crystal diode which has a sharp breakdown voltage is called a Zener diode. Zener diode is a special type of semiconductor diode which works in a breakdown region. A Zener diode uses reverse(VR/IR) characteristics for its operation. Therefore ,it is always reverse connected in the circuit i.e. it is always … Read more

Volt-Ampere Characteristic of a PN Junction Diode

Volt-Ampere Characteristic of a PN Junction Diode Volt-ampere or V-I characteristics of PN junction diode is the curve between voltage across the junction and the circuit current. Usually voltage is taken along x-axis and current along y-axis. The figure below shows circuit arrangement for determining the V-I characteristics of a PN junction diode. The characteristics … Read more