Transistor connection: Common base(CB) common Emitter(CE) common collector(CE)

Transistor connections There are three leads in a transistor i.e. emitter ,base and collector terminals. When a transistor is to be connected in a circuit, we requires four terminals; two for the input and two for the output. This difficulty is overcome by making one terminal of the transistor common to both input and output … Read more


Transistors Definition: A transistor consists of two PN junctions formed by sandwiching either p-type or n-type semiconductors between a pair of opposite types. There are two types of transistors: n-p-n transistor p-n-p transistor An n-p-n transistor is composed of two n-type semiconductors separated by a thin section of p-type in fig (i).A p-n-p transistor is … Read more

Zener Diode-Explanation working Applications circuit diagram :Zener diode as Voltage Regulator

Zener Diode A properly doped crystal diode which has a sharp breakdown voltage is called a Zener diode. Zener diode is a special type of semiconductor diode which works in a breakdown region. A Zener diode uses reverse(VR/IR) characteristics for its operation. Therefore ,it is always reverse connected in the circuit i.e. it is always … Read more

Volt-Ampere Characteristic of a PN Junction Diode

Volt-Ampere Characteristic of a PN Junction Diode Volt-ampere or V-I characteristics of PN junction diode is the curve between voltage across the junction and the circuit current. Usually voltage is taken along x-axis and current along y-axis. The figure below shows circuit arrangement for determining the V-I characteristics of a PN junction diode. The characteristics … Read more

What is diode? Formation of PN junction Biasing of Diode characteristics and uses of diode

Diode Diode are the electronic components which conducts current in one direction(unidirectional).A PN  junction is known as a semiconductor diode. Silicon and germanium are used in manufacturing the diode. The schematic symbol of diode is represented by The arrow in the symbol indicates the direction of easier conventional current flow. A diode has the two … Read more

Wind Energy Electricity Generation

Wind Energy Electricity Generation Wind is mainly caused due to the solar heating of the atmosphere. Wind as a source of energy is very attractive because it is plentiful, inexhaustible, renewable , and non-pollutant. Wind blows for 320 days in a year and gives an advantage over sunlight. Worldwide five nations Germany, USA, Denmark, Spain … Read more

What is Photovoltaic or Solar cells? Working construction types advantages

Photovoltaic or Solar cells Definition: The solar cell is a transducer or semiconductor which converts the suns radiant energy directly into electrical energy and is basically a semiconductor diode capable of developing a voltage of 0.5-1 volt and a current density of 20-40 mA/cm^2 depending upon the the material used and the conditions of sunlight. … Read more

What is Grading of cables? Definition and methods of Grading

Grading of cables Definitions of Grading of cables There is unequal stress distribution in cable is undesirable for the following reasons: Insulation of greater thickness is required which increases the cable size. Unequal stress distribution may leads to the breakdown of insulation. To overcome this drawbacks it is necessary to have a uniform stress distribution … Read more